THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF STREAM WATER

 

 

(A Case Study of Bane Town)

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ABSTRACT

The environmental quality as greatly focused on water because of its importance in maintaining the human health and health of the ecosystem. Many parts of the world are facing water scarcity problem due to limitation of water resources coincided with increasing population. Water samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical microbial properties, hence four different organisms were present in the water. The suspected organisms includes Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus and Stretococcus spp. The presence of E. coli in water sample was as a result of the contamination with fecal matter. Other parameters such BOD, COD, pH, turbidity, taste, odour and colour were an indication of the physical-chemical and microbial properties.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water is a resource that has many uses including recreation, transportation, and hydroelectric power, domestic, industrial, and commercial uses. Water also supports all forms of life and affect our health, lifestyle and economic well being.

Although more than three quarters of the earth surface is made up of water, only 2.8 percent of the earth’s water is available for human consumption. At present, approximately one-third of the world’s people live in countries with moderate to high water stress and the worldwide freshwater consumption raised six fold between the years 1900 and 1995 more than twice the rate of population growth. Thus, many parts of the world are facing water scarcity problem due to limitation of water resources coinciding with growing population.

Fresh water is a finite resource, essential for agriculture, industry and even human existence, without fresh water of adequate quantity and quality, sustainable development will not be possible. Rivers play a major role in assimilation or carrying off of municipal and industrial waste water and run off from agricultural land, the former constitutes the constant polluting source whereas the later is a seasonal phenomenon. With the rapid development in agriculture mining, urbanization, and industrialization activities the river water contamination with hazardous waste and waste water is becoming common phenomenon.

In India almost 70% of the water has become polluted due to the discharge of domestic sewage and industrial effluents into natural water source, such as rivers, streams as well as lakes. The improper management of water systems may cause serious problems in availability and quality of water. Since water quality and human health are closely related water analysis before usage is of prime importance. Certain physical, chemical and microbiological standards, which are designed to ensure that the water is palatable and safe for drinking before it can be described as potable. Therefore, present study was aimed to analyze the comparative physic-chemical and microbial analysis of five river water samples using standard methods.

Water is our life time that bathes us and feeds us. In ancient cultures, water represented their essence of life. Water provides the earth with the capacity of supporting life. An organism does not have to be told how important water is to their existence (How Ard, Et Al, 1998).

According to United State geological survey (2005), water is in constant motion, evaporating into the atmosphere from oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams, stream water have always been perceived as gift from God. Stream water is less dense in its solid state than in its liquid state, so that ice floats instead of sinking. Thus property permits life to develop in polar and sub polar regions where ice floats and allows life to continue living below the surface. Water is a remarkable solvent where most elements and compounds can dissolve in its powerful molecular structure. Gases such as oxygen and carbondioxide, can also dissolve making it readily available for photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organism to use (Delaware 2010).

Water quality is determined by physical, chemical and microbial properties. These properties of a stream water throughout the world are characterized with wide variability (Prioz, 1997).

1.2   AIMS/OBJECTIVES

Stream water contamination has caused death of over 14,000 people annually in tropical countries. Stream contamination affects plants and organisms living in the stream. In almost all cases the effects is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities. (American water quality society, 2001). This research study is basically to determine the chemical, physical, and microbial properties of stream water, a case study of stream in Bane town and to give useful information to safe our stream. also to check the parameter used in the determination of physical, chemical and microbial properties of the river samples and to find the degree of pollution in them.

1.3   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will verify that stream water constitute various physical, chemical and microbial properties which may be dangerous to human and aquatic organisms.

1.4   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The physical properties of a stream such as the channel shape, the substrate size, and the available habitats, play an important role in determining the type and diversity of organisms that the stream can support. These physical attributes provide useful information on ecosystem function and stream health (Johnson, 2002).

Stream water contamination has caused diseases and deaths of over 14,000 people annually in tropical countries. Stream water pollution affects plants and organisms living in the stream. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities (American water quality society, 2001).

Sequal to the above, this research work is basically to determine the chemical, physical and microbial properties of stream water using stream water in Bane town as a case study.

1.5   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The duration given for this research has been a serious set back, considering crownded academic activities at hand and time frame where more research is expected to be done on this work. Again cost and insufficient materials lead to limitation in certain areas of the research work.

1.6   DEFINITION OF TERMS (TERMINOLOGIES)

STREAM WATER: This simply means a small narrow body of water flowing from one place to another.

CHEMICAL: This is connected with chemistry. It is a substance produced by using processes which involve changes to atoms or molecules.

PHYSICAL: This can be defined as anything that actually exist or are present and can be seen, felt and touched (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).

MICROBIAL: This is a small organism that can be seen with the aid of microscope. It is usually unicellular, or if multicellular, does not exhibit high degree of differentiation. (Joanne et al, 2011).

PATHOGENS: This is any virus, bacterium, fungus or other agent that causes diseases.

CONTAMINATION: This is to make a substance or place dirty or no longer pure by adding a substance that is dangerous or carries disease. (Joanne, et al, 2011).

CORROSIVENESS: This is a substance or something tending or has the ability to destroy something slowly by chemical action. (Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary).

PROPERTIES: These simply mean the qualities or characteristics that something posses.

 

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