THE STORAGE PATTERN AND SHELF-LIFE OF READY TO EAT YELLOW AND WHITE GARI IN NYOKURU COMMUNITY IN KHANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE.

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ABSTRACT

This study is to investigate the storage pattern and shelf-life of ready to eat yellow and white Gari stored in different bags (sack bag, polythene bag, plastic rubber & metal pot) and floor platform(carpet floor, tiles floor, wooden floor, cement floor). The moisture content of the Gari was reduced to 10.4% before storing using hot air oven. The mean moisture content of white Gari increases to 24.25±0.5% for sample stored in sack bags and metal pots and 13.6±0.5% for samples stored in plastic and polythene bags. The mean shelf- life of white Gari stored with different patterns in sack bags is 10±0.5 weeks, metal pots 12±0.5weeks, polythene bags 28±0.5 weeks and plastics 28.2±0.5 weeks. And shelf- life of yellow Gari in sack bag is 14.5±0.5 weeks, metal pot 14.5±0.5 weeks, polythene bag 31.5±0.5 weeks and plastic containers 31.5±0.5 weeks. Hence, the result suggest that, if Gari are stored with plastic rubber, polythene bag, on a tile floor, carpet floor or wooden floor and cement floor, and also if palm oil are added to Gari and the moisture content are reduced to 10.4%, this can prolong the shelf- life of Gari, reduce its rate of moisture absorption, thereby reducing it contamination, making it safe for human consumption and reduce the rate of food borne diseases.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Gari is made from peeled, washed ground, fermented and fried fresh cassava tuber (Manihotesculentacrantz) (Ernesto etal., 2000). It is the most popular fermented cassava products in Africa (Oluwoleetal., 2004; Ernesto etal., 2000) and it is consumed by several million of person in west Africa where it forms major part of their diet (Edemetal., 2001; Kostineketal., 2005, Ogiehoretal., 2004). In Nigeria, its acceptability cuts across the various ethnic and socio-economic classes making it the commonest food among the rich and the poor (JekayinfaS.O and Olajide J.O, 2007; Ogiehoretal., 2007).

Gari is stored and marketed in a ready to-eat form and prepared into stiff paste or dough-like called “Eba” by adding the granules into hot water stirring to make a paste of varied consistency.

Eba can be consumed with local soups or stews of various types by chewing or swallowing in morsels (Asegbeloyin and Onyimonyi, 2007, Ogiehoretal., 2007). Gari can also be deliciously consumed directly (without cooking) with groundnut, smoke fish, coconut, cowpeas, moi-moi, Kuli-kuli or taken as a fast food when soaked in cold water (Ogugbue and Obi, 2011). Sometimes, it is taken with beverages mixed with cold water or warm water with salt or sugar depending on the choice of the individual.

Gari is rich in starch; it has high fibre content and contains some essential vitamins (Adepojuetal., 2010).

The commonest limitation on the shelf-ife of this food ismicrobial growth; hence, several preservation methods have been adopted (Laborasnietal., 2002). Gari is a major food consumed by the students because of it cheapness and it availability. It has been observed that the longer the storage time, the higher the PH and moisture content which may be due to production of acidic metabolites by micro-organism during their growth and proliferation (Ogugbueetal.,2011; Aguoru, Celestina U. etal.,2014).This study was undertaken to evaluate the storage patterns and their impacts on the shelf-life of ready to eat yellow and white Gari inNyokuru Community inKhana Local Government of Rivers State. The study would proffer solutions to the huge economic loses faced by gari merchants and (as well as) extend the shelf-life of stored gari.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Gari is one of the most important starchy foodthat provides adequate amount of carbohydrates, fiber and  vitamins for human. And this makes them to serve a dual purpose of reducing some essential mal-nutrition and protecting the body against a number of metabolic disorders the men sometimes said that they provide the necessary energy demanded by the body. But due to the availability of this staple food (gari) and the cheapness makes consumers and producer to purchase and produce in large quantity which lead to spoilage before complete consumption.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study is to evaluate the storage pattern and shelf-life of ready to eat gari and other objective is:

To identify the different ways in which people used in storing ready to eat gari

To know the different apparatus used in storing gari

To compared their shelf-life

To recommend which methods/pattern and apparatus is best for storing gari

To know the significance or effect of moisture content on each storage patterns.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This researches in the storage patterns and shelf-life of ready to eat gari will be beneficial to researchers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State and other states of the country or continent. It will advance knowledge in the study of the latest storage patterns and shelf-life of ready to eat gari in Nigeria. Above all, this will enhances the distribution and availability of apparatus and gari as well as, this study will help the public to know the best storage pattern to enhance the shelf-life of ready to eat gari and reduce loses.

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis of this study is that;

The shelf-life of processedgari depends on the moisture content.

The shelf-life of process ready to eat garidepends on the storage pattern.

The shelf-life of ready to eat gari also depend on the type of gari (yellow or white) and it production. (Okaka and Okaka, 2001), Otutuet al., 2013.

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research is on storage pattern and shelf-life of ready to eat gari (whiteand yellow)gari obtainedfrom some producer in Nyokuru community in Khana Local Government in Ogoni of Rivers State.

1.7   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Sorting: This is the process of selecting some part of a whole into different groups, that is to select good once from bad once.

Peeling: This is an act or process of removing the outer layer or covering of a tuber crops.

Grating: This an act of crushing a tuber into mesh or pulp form.

Washing: This is a process of purring the peeled tubers into water to remove stains or dirt and sand.

De-watering and fermenting: This is the process of removing cyanide from the mesh cassava, the water are allowed to drain and ferment for a few days.

Sieving: This is the process of separating a coerce particles from a mixture to obtain a fine granules or to obtain a smaller granules from a lager one.

Packaging/ Storage Apparatus:This are equipment or materials used in keeping or carrying the gari for marketing or consumption.

Gari:This is a name given to a fine granules obtain from a process cassava.

Moisture: This is the amount ofwater content of asubstance

Gratification: The process of making gari from cassava.

Plastic: These are synthetic material which can be softened by heat or pressure and then mould into curry desirable shape.

PH:This is the acidic content of a substance compared with world standard. PH also known as potential hydrogen concentration.

 

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