CASE STUDY OF KEN SARO-WIWA POLYTECHNIC BORI STUDENT’S HOSTEL
Complete Material Cost #3,000
Alkaline earth metals precisely magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) were investigated in a municipal solid waste, which was gotten from the dumpsite in the hostel environment. The sample was collected and then taken to a laboratory for further analysis, it was digested and analyzed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) Varium Spectra AA22OFS. This samples were collected from two different hostels, labeled sample I dumpsite and sample 2 hostel. After the analysis magnesium (Mg) and Cakium (Ca) results were seen at 9.42 and 7.85Mg/Kg respectively.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Of the many problems associated with urbanization in especially sub-Saharan Africa, Waste management crisis has assumed an important position. Pasquini and Harris (2005) have explained in numerous when centres across Africa.
The problem posed by poor management of solid waste in Ken Saro Wiwa Polytechnic has been an issue that has attracted much discourse among policy makers and hence research is necessary, urban waste crises in Nigeria can be ascribed to factors like rapid increase in urban population heavy consumption pattern of urban dwellers, and inefficiency of the authorities whose statutory responsibilities are to manage refuge in the cities, currently, dumpsites, have become prominent and permanent features of almost all urban areas in Nigeria (Agunwamba, 1998). In fact wayback 1994, a Chief Executive of Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency commented that one of the most embarrassing environmental problems that stare at the Nation is the municipal solid waste disposal problem, with municipal waste dumpsites now being sadly used as landmark and reference points for traveling directions.
Municipal waste is mainly produce by household through similar waste from sources, such as commerce office and public institutions are included. The amount of municipal waste generated consist of waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed through the waste management system. In this context, municipal waste is understood as waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. However the definition also includes waste from other or same source and other waste similar in nature and composition that is collected directly by the private sector (Business or Private non-profit institutions) not on behalf of municipalities (mainly separated collection for recovery purpose) (Amakhian et al, 2003). A reconnaissance survey was conducted within the hostel premises to identify the different locations of municipal waste found in the hostel dump and also identify the heavy metals concentration especially magnesium, calcium and beryllium.
As interest in municipal solid waste (MSW) composting increases, one of the concerns that must be addressed is the extent to which the low concentration of heavy metal and metalloids (metal-line elements) present in municipal/solid waste (MSW) compost may adversely affect human health, soil organism, plant growth (garden) etc.
In small amounts, there are traces of elements such as (e.g. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury) are of concern primarily because of their potential to harm soil organism, animals and humans who may eat contaminated plant or soil, other traces include (Boron, Zinc, Copper and Nickel) which play an important role to ensuring the growth of plants.
In addition to affecting human health, trace elements contained in municipal solid waste (MSW) compose may be (carried by water) from the soil and enter into either ground or surface water. As with plant uptake, soil pH, organic matter content and other soil characteristics affect the amount of leaching.
Little research has been conducted to determine the effect of MSW compost on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. One European study found the initial leachate concentration of all the metals studied exceeded E.E.C driving water standard, but offer one and a half years of leaching, only Nickel still exceed the limit. The study used extremely high compost application rules and experimental soil columns with very shallow soils and thus probably overestimate the leaching potential. (Peter B. Woodbury, Boyce Thompson, Institute of Plant Research of Comell University 1996).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Analysis of Alkaline earth metals found in municipal waste in student hostel case study Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori.
The students in Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori hostel generate waste and in the absence of any stipulated dump site the waste generated are being littered all over the hostel and compass as well which is of great concern to the authorities of the Polytechnic. Apart from being a concern in the school administration, it has also been identified as paramount threat (time-bumb) which with time gradually affects the safe living (health condition) of residents of the hostel and the entire school environment respectively. Within the period their has been so many recorded cases of victims mostly hostel residents suffering from related diseases/ailment like malaria, typhoid fever, nausea, breathing problems and others seem to be on the increase.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following objectives for this are:
– To analyze selected Alkaline Earth metals in municipal waste Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori (Hostel).
– To know the amount of concentration of selected group 2 metals in municipal waste found in student hostel in Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori.
– To ascertain harmful effect of the group 2 metals found in municipal waste on human lives via comparison with WHO standard limits.
– To know the importance of waste management
– To make concrete recommendation.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This study was designed address the following question:
- Are their presence of selected Alkaline earth metals in municipal waste in Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori (Hostel).
- What are the concentration of selected group 2 metals in municipal waste, in student hostel Ken’s Poly.
- Are their any harmful effect of the group 2 found in municipal waste on human lives via pension with WHO standard limits.
- What are the important of waste management
- What are the recommendations and conclusion towards the study
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will propose to provide the basic knowledge to the students and the staff of Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori. The dumping of waste in the environment has negative effect and that there are numerous alkaline earth metals in municipal waste.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research is limited to the analysis of alkaline earth metals in municipal waste in student hostel (Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori).
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The most limiting factor encountered in course of carrying out this research work was lack of funds.
Also, the time duration required for completion was too short, hence not encouraging, sourcing of materials was a difficult task due to the fact that some materials were not readily available at the time of writing.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined in the specific sense in which they were used in this research study. They include the following:
Alkaline earth materials: They are elements that make up the group 2 of the periodic table, they include Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.
Waste product: An unusable or unwanted substance or material produced during or as a result of a process, such as metabolism or manufacturing.
Municipal solid waste (MSW): A waste arising from households, but also include other waste of equivalent, composition, thus waste from service, trade, and industrial sector.
Waste management: Refers to the act of maintaining acceptable quality, sound public health and creation of aesthetic value.
Health: It is a condition of the body, which makes a person to function effectively. It is the absence of sickness or stress of any form.
Environmental health: It refers to the health implication of the interaction between individuals and their natural and built environment.
Complete Material Cost #3,000