STANDARD PLATE COUNT OF POOL, POND, WELL, TAP AND SACHET WATER OBTAINED FROM BORI, KHALGA IN RIVERS STATE OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Water samples were collected from pool, pond, well, tap, and sachet water to estimate the number of viable cells or total number of cells from each of the water bodies. Using the standard plate count method, result revealed that pure water has the least viable cells followed by tap water where as pond water has the highest viable cells followed by well and pool water. In this study, non of the water sample will be compared to (WHO) World Health Organization standard for save drinking water and (NAFDAC) National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 STANDARD PLATE COUNT (SPC)

This is also referred to as aerobic plate count or total plate count.  The standard plate count is the most widely used method for determining the number of viable cells or colony forming unit (cfu) in a food sample (Jarvis, et; al 2007).

By the conventional (SPC) method, portion of food samples are blended or homogenized, serially diluted in an appropriate diluents, plated in or onto a suitable agar medium and incubated at an appropriate temperature for a given period of time before all visible colonies are counted by the use of electronic counter (Marshall, 2005).

The SPC is used as an indicator of the level of Bacterial in a dairy product, they do not measure the entire population but rather the number of bacterial that grows in the presence of Oxygen (aerobically) and at medium range Mesophillic temperature (Martin, et; al 2006).

1.2   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Water is one of the most essential commodities for the survival of all lives. It is abundant in nature and occupies over 70% of the earthcrust, also is the biological medium on earth that exist in all three physical states of matter; solid, liquid and gas. It is the most universally used solvent and common route of transmission of diseases (Botkin and Killer, 1998).

Water is indeed life and the most important natural resource which without, there would have been non-existent. Therefore, availability of save and reliable sources of water is very important (Asonye, et; al 2007). The physicochemical and Bacteriological assessment of some swimming pools were analyze within Ilorin metropolis, Kwara before and after use by bathers respectively in other to determines their physicochemical and Bacteriological parameters. The statistical analyses showed that there were differences in the bacterial count and free residual chlorine contents of pools water prior to use and after use by bathers, therefore the possible sources of contamination were identified. (Sule, 2010). Bacteriological and physicochemical water quality of four ponds of Dhaka metropolis were analyze as well as the drug resistance pattern of bacteria associated with the pond. In this study, the BOD (i.e. conventional method of determining the organic load of water sample and COD (i.e. chemical oxygen demand or consumped) values of the water samples ranged between 3.18 and 6.05 respectively. According to the united state public health standard, 5 and 4 mg/L BOD and COD respectively indicate the quality of domestic and drinking water, (DE, 1999). Microbial quality of well water in Suguma, Nigeria were analyze as a way of save guarding health against water borne diseases. Comparatively, the uncovered well were highly contaminated with bacteria pathogens than the covered well especially in the highly populated areas. All the water samples exceeded the standard limit of the most probable members (MPN) per 100mc set for untreated drinking water.

(Idowu A.O, 2005). Physical chemical analyses were carried out on borehole water also known as Tap water from eight metropolises using the standard methods. The results obtained were compared to the (WHO) world health organization and (AEPA) American Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water.

However, save drinking water is very scarce, the over increasing demand of readily available water has led to the concept of sachet/pure water. Sachet water in Nigeria is popularly known as pure water, normally sold at the rate of five naira/sachet. Bacteriological analyses of 10 samples of each sachet drinking water, samples from different manufacturer were carried out to determine the portability of the sampled water. Therefore, portable water is any package water that has been processed, sealed and released into the market under sealed food grade material or other appropriate containers for human consumption (FDA, 2002). Standard conventional methods were employed for the detection of coliforms (viable count, and confirm coliform count) and other Bacteria count. Most sachet water brands fell below who drinking water standard and are therefore of doubtful quality, out of the Ten brand samples tested, four samples showed the presence of contamination in the form of high number of coliforms and occurance of intestinal pathogens. This indicates that the pure water available in the university campus and onion market are unfit for human consumption due to their inability to meet up with (WHO) 2011 and (NAFDAC) 2010 standard.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In view of the above, this feasibility relates to the production and packaging of purified water to (WHO) World Health Organization and (NAFDAC) National Agency of Food And Drug Administration Control standard requirements for human consumptions. Continuous increase in the sale and indiscriminate consumption of packaged drinking waters in Nigeria is public health significance. Therefore, effort needs to be intensified in monitoring of activities in this rapidly expanding industries with a view of raising standard.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be beneficial to people in both urban and suburban areas, it will exposed them to the danger of using water from unsaved sources. It will enable us to know the potability of water samples from different sources for human consumption.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study aims to provide information on pool, pond, well, tap, and sachet water obtained. It aims at knowing the acceptable value of pool, pond, well, tap and sachet water, obtained, comparing to (WHO) World Health Organization and (NAFDAC) National Agency of Food and Drug Administration Control.

This aims at knowing the suitability of pool, pond, well, tap and sachet water and their Bacteriological profile. The study also aim at the availability of safe and reliable source of water for human consumption.

This study also aim at the assessment of bacteriological profile of pool, pond, well, tap and sachet water obtained.

This study will give an understanding of the extent to which pool, pond, well, tap and sachet water meet the standards and recommendation of the (WHO) and (NAFDAC).

 

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