SEDIMENT PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ORASHI RIVER

Complete Material Cost #3,000

Order for Complete Material now

Abstract

The sediment characteristics in Orashi River of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied for a period of months years (July, 2017 – April, 2017) using an Eckman grab of 10 cm diameter and 12 cm long. The sand contents of the sediment were high across the stations. The percentage sand content ranged from 81.96% to 86.96%. Station 2 (Onusi Imoeha) had the highest value (86.96%) while station 1 (Onusi loyde ) had the lowest value (81.96%). The pH values of the sediments were acidic across the stations. Station 2 (Onusi Imoeha) (6.78) and 5.70, it was the most acidic while station 1 (Degema)( 5.85) was the least. Conductivity of the sediments values ranged from 14 to 65S/cm. Station 1 (Onusi loyde) had the highest value (1,940:S/cm) while the lowest value (40 :S/cm) was obtained from station 2 (Onusi Imoeha). The sulphate content of the sediments ranged from 0.0 to 25.3 mg/kg. Station 1 (Onusi loyde) had the highest value (30.0 mg/kg) while the lowest value (0.65 mg/kg) was obtained from station 2 (Onusi Imoeha). Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) of the sediments ranged from <0.001 and 50.4 mg/kg while the lowest value (21.6 mg/kg) was obtained from station 1 (Onusi loyde). Conclusively all sediments of Orashi Onusi  loyde and Orashi and three sediments of the upper course .The highest degree of weathering shows the sediment from Onusi  loyde River. It is recommended that, The government should place restrictions on the practice of intensive sand mining in a given river for social demands on water management, including water supply, flood control, sediment control etc.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Orashi River (also Urashi or Ulasi) is a river of the lower Niger River basin, and a tributary of Oguta Lake, southeastern Nigeria, Ijeoma  (2008). Orashi takes off, 183 m above mean sea level, from the rocks in Ezeama community of Dikenafai, Imo State, Ahiarakwem (2002) described as a lifeline to Ideato South communities. Orashi stream serves as an all purpose river for drinking, washing and many other communities such as Umulewe, Umuchima and Ntueke in the area. The physical and chemical characteristics of any water body are of ecological significance especially in estuarine ecosystems that are prone to daily tidal physicochemical fluctuations Mucha (2003).Studies on basic physicochemical characteristics carried out in various rivers have focused on the water quality parameters of the rivers’ water columns with little or no consideration given to the bottom or sediment characteristics, Akpan (1993). Unfortunately, river or lagoon beds which are ideal habitats for several species of organisms usually serve as a ‘sink’ for both domestic and industrial wastes from anthropogenic activities, Ajao (2002). Dumping of such wastes could alter the ecological state of these ecosystems. Hence baseline studies are required to determine the status of sediment structure and quality to give complimentary data on the physicochemical characteristics of these habitats, Blake (1995). Orashi River takes off as a stream, from the rocks, at the base of a waterfall, 183 m above mean sea level, in the Urashi enclave of Ezeama in Dikenafai, Imo State Putnam (2005).

Sediments are biological basal remnant or substances which are carried by the processes of abrasion the results from precipitation, especially through wind, water or ice, and sink down the abyss as sediment by gravitational force. Just like the soil in terrestrial ecosystem, sediment forms substrate with life-supporting agents like nutrients that inhabits micro flora and fauna and other aquatic organisms (Kautsky and Bolviken 1998; Obaje et al., 2014). Sediment also reflects the entire dissolved solids (TDS), or suspended solid which remarkably affects the depth, turbulence, allochthnous run-offs and also the flow dynamics of any river (Olorode et al., 2015). Sediment is a vital component of any aquatic system, due to the keystone role it plays in determining aquatic biodiversity of any aquatic system, and the pollution level (Waziri, 2014). Provision of adequate potable water is essential in the combat against water related diseases (Ike & Ugodulunwa, 1999), especially in indigent community where inhabitant lack basic amenities (Agedah et al., 2015). From the foregoing, streams of waste from industrial, domestic and agricultural have become media of pollution of environmental pollution especially water pollution. The pollution of water bodies has become a global threat, which can result to public health problems and rapid decline in biodiversity. The aesthetic value of river Orashi cannot be overemphasized, being a basic tributary that forms the triangular Niger Delta wetland basin. Sediment largely reflects anthropogenic activity of most river system (Waziri, 2014). Due to precarious and unhygienic activities of uninformed inhabitants whose abode align the Orashi river, the need to be cautious of anthropogenic activities around this river is worthy of note; as such it will be utmost to evaluate the level of sedimentary level of the river.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The case of poor water bodies has been a problem over time now due to sedimentation of un-useful materials in the water body. This then, posed a concern to the users and the government as well. The composition of the water sediments are said to have major uses; and can as well increase the flow of water at the water bank. The research study is designed to proffer solutions to the ongoing sedimentation of particles in the water, which can cause flooding, loss of lives and properties.

1.3   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following research objectives are to be achieved at the end of the research work;

 To determine the chemical and physical properties of the sediments of Orashi water (river)

 To identify the useful components (sediments) of Orashi river

 To  know if there are much minerals in the river of Orashi.

 To measure the conductivity, pH value and particle size of the sand sediments.

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

The research study is of utmost benefit to the society and the users of water and the various sediments in the river of Orashi in the eastern part of Delta state. The  need for a good and useful water body by the nearby companies and inhabitants of Orashi community. Also, the consumption or use of the water sediments like fine sand, sea minerals and other useful components of the water body, have been a problem to the users of these raw materials over time .Therefore, the research study would be essential to knowing the soil salinity, physical and chemical composition of the substituent minerals in the water body, Lewis, M. A.(2001). More so, it will be beneficial to future researchers and the students of science laboratory technology who may intend to run further research on the physicochemical properties of the water sediments of the water bodies like lakes ponds, stream or river, sea, ocean etc.

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research study is carried out on the sediment physicochemical characteristics of Orashi river. It is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the sediments of the river body. This is related to the nature and demand of the users of the sediments in the water body in under study.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.

The work so far encountered various constraints in the process of conducting the research work. It was intensely faced with financial challenge in purchuasing the required materials and equipments for the work. Also, it took to realize the results of testing the various sand samples (sediments) collected from the river of Orashi.

1.7   DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terminologies would be used in the course of carrying  out the research study;

Characteristics:

According to Merriam Webster dictionary, characteristics is defined as those features  that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait.

Sediments:

Sediments are biological basal remnant or substances which are carried by the processes of abrasion that results from precipitation, especially through wind, water or ice, and sink down the abyss as sediment by gravitational force. Just like the soil in terrestrial ecosystem, sediment forms substrate with life-supporting agents like nutrients that inhabits micro flora and fauna and other aquatic organisms (Kautsky and Bolviken 1998; Obaje, 2014).

Physicochemical:

This deals with the physical and chemical features or properties of the sediments that base at the bottom of a river .It is used to determine salinity and conductivity of the water body.

 

Complete Material Cost #3,000

Order for Complete Material now

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *