HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

(A SURVEY OF SELECTED BREWERIES IN RIVERS STATE)

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ABSTRACTS

This research work has dealt with the issue of Human resource Development and Organizational Productivity (a survey of selected Breweries in Rivers State). The specific objectives of the study are: To determine the extent at which effective human resource development can enhance productivity in order to reduce poor productivity in organization. To determine the relationship between human resource development and organizational productivity. The researcher therefore adopted the descriptive/survey method as the research design. And the primary and secondary sources of data were used in data collection and the statistical technique used to analyze the data was simple descriptive method stated in tables and expressed in percentage. The researcher found that: Human resource development is very vital to any organization ranging from small to large scale enterprises since it is well known that no business can exist entirely without human beings. It shows that one of the major functions of human resource development is the engagement of people to work in order to achieve growth and profitability. Recommendation include; management having seen human resource as a vital aspect in organization, should be encouraged to finance. Educational qualifications, more especially, technical qualifications should be a pre-requisite for recruitment, dilution, placement, promotion appraisal and lay off or workers. This means that the companies under study should adjust their work/responsibility by engaging more qualified staff so as to help utilize other resources well for their effective productivity.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Human resource has been subject of thought and reflection in the field of management for a long time, only recently, however that the link between organizational productivity and human resource management issues, seem to have received attention, where human development has developed different approaches, in identifying the benefit of the perception against the traditional human resource management, which is a drive towards a development Aniagbo (1984).

Human resource is now evolving approach that promotes the use of human, natural and financial resources to improve the economy, the environment and society in an integrated way for the benefit of current and future generations.

Human resource can be defined as the practice of reserving resources for future generation without any harm to the nature and other components of it. Apple (1998) human resource development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social, political, and economic challenges faced by humanity human resource science is the study of the concepts of human resource development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations responsibility to regenerate maintain and improve planetary resources for use by future generations.

Human development is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of management and providing direction for the people who work in the organization human development can also be performed by line manager human development is the organizational function that deals with issue related to people such as compensation, hiring productivity management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation communication, administration and training. Hacket, (1999) human development is also strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the work place, culture and environment effective human resource management enables employees to contribute effectively and productively the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goal and objectives. Organization productivity is determined by a broad range of factors, some can be evaluated quantitatively, while others require a qualitative, analytical approach when assessing productivity. It is important to fully understand each of the key drivers that impact productivity. In addition to evaluating each driver individually, it is necessary to determine how well these drivers work together and function as a while changes to one driver  might (and probably will) have an effect on others Lyncle, 1992) effective assessment involves understanding how each driver contributes to overall productivity.

The greatest asset of any organization is its human resources that ensure that achievement of the company’s goals and objective (source: Human resource Article 2012) it is unfortunate that most company’s organization have neglected the development and management of their chief asset which is human resource Ogbodo (2007). According to Ubeku, (1995) human development is the function within an organization that focused on recruitment of management of and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach of managing people and the work place culture and environment Ubeku, (1995). Effective human resource management enables employees to contribute effectively and productivity to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives Fatunla, (2000). Human development is administrative activities associated with human resources planning, recruitment selection orientation training appraisal motivation and also a functions within an organization  that focuses on people Graham, (1994). According to Wikipedia, human resources is the set of individuals who make up the work force of an organization. Human development encompassed activities designed to provide for and co-ordinates, all human element within the organization. This will ensure its stable continuity and achievement the  human personnel element represents are of the company’s largest investment Igun (2006) consequently organization should prioritize development of the human element to maximize talents, skills and ability which will automatic reflects on the company’s profit. It pre-supposes that we do need people in order to firm a business which that no business can exist entirely without people. Even a computer auto-mental machine factory has to employ some people. Though a conventional plant with similar capacity might require more people there arises the need for proper planning of t these people employed otherwise known as “manpower planning” (source: How contributing writer) most organization does not have plans for the development of  their member of staff. Leeuwen (2007) once those people are recruited the companies do not orientate them neither do they train them to acquire other modern skills or improve upon their talents and educational qualification they came in with.

It is a well-known fact that, the primary concern of an organization is its viability and hence its efficiency for effective functioning of any organization employees must learn to perform their job at a satisfactory level of proficiency and also the organization must provide opportunities for the continued development and training of employees not only on their jobs, but as well develop them for other jobs for which they might later be considered. According to Obikoya (1996) training is a systematic process of altering the behaviour, knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities and adapt to changing conditions. Nakamuva (1981) it is further argued that training helps improve quality customer satisfaction, productivity, morale, management succession business development and profitability. Prokepenko, (1996) opined that people are unique they have different needs, different ambition, different attitudes and different desires for responsibility, different levels of knowledge and skills and different potentials. However, Schultz (1961), believed that both private and public sectors in Nigeria are guilty of wrong utilization of available human resources. This is especially in the public sector where graduates are employed in the area which they lack expertise that organization must engage in intensive staff training and research moreover, Todaro (2003) said that objectives of an organization maximize long- term return on the resources it employed. Therefore to focus attention on Wright priorities and of securing productivity standard and appraised. According to Wesley (1982) productivity of appraisal compares individual job productivity to standard developed  for the individual’s position how productivity may prompt corrective action like additional  training a demotion or separation while high productivity merit word such as bonus of promotion.

The problem of development has occupied the attention of scholars, activists, development workers and international organizations for many years with an increased tempo within the last decade. According to Igbuzor (2005), even though there are different perspectives to development will lead to a good change manifested in increased capacity of people to have control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology and obtain physical necessities of life like food, clothing, shelter, employment etc.

Compares under study need to equip their labour  force which will boost quality product and profit making of their organization human resource development makes sure that  manpower planning in an organization is not static but an ongoing process source Aniago, U.A. and Ejiofor (1884) it focuses on raising productivity through improved quality efficiency, cost  reduction and enabling customers concentrate on their core business is also known capital for utilization harnessing development and direction of nation’s objective it is also all about the formulation of values and attitude. Therefore, human development is a universal norms and not a view concept  there is no industry, film, organization, business enterprises, nation etc that can boost a political, economic and social stability, quality product and profitability without adequate human resources in place.

In recent years, it has been noted that good number of business establishment are having poor productivity as a result of lack of effective and efficient human resource. Business is full of uncertainty and the understanding  of labour contribution or human resources development is vital for management especially in the areas of boosting organizational productivity and as well its profitability Ubeku, (1995).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Both public and private organizations in Nigeria contribute to the wrong utilization of available human       resources. This is because graduates are employed in    areas where they lack expertise. The management of   some organization does not seem to know the importance     of training and development of workers productivity    Ubeku, (1995). Some management believes that if        workers have acquired education, there is no need to train         again. Provisions of welfare facilities are not given      adequate attention in some organization despite many policies being put in place to ensure workers productivity   and efficiency and to possibly stamp out ethical practices      in the public sector especially, however, job satisfaction         and workers productivity could only be achieved in few establishments. Therefore this study intend to solve the problems of human resources development in organizational and firms productivity in Nigeria which many researchers has  tried to look into over the years.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is on human resources development and organizational productivity (A survey of selected breweriesin Rivers State) the specific objectives of the study:

(1) To determine the extent at which effective human resources development can enhance productivity in order to reduce poor productivity in organization.

(2) To determine the relationship between human resources development and organizational productivity.

(3) To ascertain if human resources development have any significant impact on organizational productivity.

(4) To identify the problems of human resources development on organizational productivity.

(5) To proffer solutions to the problems of human resour-ces development on organizational productivity.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research has determined to examine human resources development and organizational productivity.

The significance of this work lies on the fact that will improve organizational productivity this work will be beneficial to the human resources development.

This work stands to benefit: therefore the study is focused towards gaining a detail insight on human resources development and organizational productivity. This research project will be beneficial to the business organizations government, people in the society who have quest for more knowledge on human resources development and organizational productivity.

The study is also intended  to provide a benchmark for business managers in Rivers State such as the selected breweries companies in Rivers State. Finally, this study will be of good help to the students of Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic and other higher institutions of learning  the insight on human resources development and organizational productivity.

1.5   THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following question shall be use in the course of     this research study.

  1. What is the extent to which human resources development can enhance productivity in order to reduce poor productivity in organization?
  2. What are the relationships between human resources development and organizational productivity?
  3. Does human resources development have any significant impact on organizational profitability?
  4. Can there be problems of human resource development and organizational productivity?
  5. What are the prospects of human resources development on organizational productivity?
  6. Can there be solutions to the problems of associated to human resources development and organizational productivity?

1.6   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

The following are the statement of hypotheses.

Ho:  There is no significant relationship between  human resources development and organizational productivity.

H1:  There is a significant relationship between human resources development and organizational productivity.

1.7   SCOPE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research study will covers selected breweries in rivers state which include, Nigerian Brewery and Nigerian Bottling Company all in Port Harcourt metropolis. The scope shall further cover human resource development and organizational productivity.

Every research study has certain limitations which fall short of the ideas which the researcher has established or recognized given the critical and sensitive nature of  the topic under this study, the researcher encountered a number of problems which hindered the research work paramount among these constraints is the time frame within which the work was expected to be completed the time period of competition for the work was too small considering the fact that the topic covered on formal education as a determinant of entrepreneurial success in Nigeria.

Besides the cost of embarking on this project work, considering  the volume of work involved also give its own constraint on the research work as  the researcher was not financially buoyant enough to carry out all the investigation deem necessary to be carried out.

Furthermore,  the people interviewed also gives their own limitation as  most  information   soughed  for  were  mainly  from selected  firms  such  as  the  Nigerian  brewery  and  Nigeria bottling company in  port  Harcourt, the  research  find  it  difficult  tracing  those  used  for  the research work which  gave her a tough  time to do its worthy to mention that the major source of this work was on few textbooks.

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

EFFECTS: A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

ORGANIZATION: An organization or organization (see spelling differences) is an entity, such as an institution or an association that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process i.e. Output per unit or input.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: Human development is a well-being concept within a field of international development. It involves studies of  the human condition with its core being the capability approach the inequality adjusted human development index is used as a way of measuring actual progress in human development by the united nations.

ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY: Organization productivity is determined by a broad range of factors some can be evaluated quantitatively, while others require a qualitative analytical approach.

 

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