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This research work was purposely carried out to find out the bacteria in Museum fish ponds in Akwa-Ibom State. they could be some problems which will hinder these bacterial in fish ponds have very close relationship with many ecological factors in fish ponds such as dissolved oxygen, BOD suspended substance, organic debris, transparency nutrient, salt and plankten, which both shows direct or indirect ratio and often play a decisive role in their existence and growth. Bacterial communities found in fish ponds have been show to be similar to those found in the pond fishes. The bacterial species present in a fish pond will often reflect the bacterial flora of the pond fishes, and vice-versa. Their population in pond water and on pond fish may vary from time to time depending on the prevalent environmental conditions. The study, in synergy with studies by other researchers, has shown that bacterial population in fish pond water can vary between different ponds depending on the environmental conditions exciting in the ponds, the fish species been reared, and the geographical region in which the pond is located.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Fishes are among the edible food source naturally living in water, consumed by man and containing many nutrients such as protein, minerals, fat, oil, etc. Some fish species are been reared in ponds as a source of income. Fishes commonly reared in ponds are freshwater or. brackish-water fishes, and they include catfish and carp DePaola et al, (2010); In Akwa-Ibom, catfish is reared in almost every fish ponds owned by government and individuals.
Fish ponds are artificial lake or reservoir intended for fish breeding. They provide a source of food and income. Fish ponds are usually constructed by creating depression in the ground, lining the walls and bottom of the depression with impermeable materials so as to retain water, and filling with water. Ponds are also available where a medium size to huge plastic container is used as the reservoir. Water from various sources which include well, borehole, springs, stream, and river can be use in a fish pond. However, the salinity of the water will determine which fish is to be reared in the pond. Thus water from borehole, which has very low salt content, can only be used in rearing fresh water fish. Several microorganisms including bacteria, micro-algae, and protozoa can be found in fish ponds. They usually occur in the ponds as a result of pond construction activities, and transport from the source of water and the medium of transport into the ponds. They can also find their way into the ponds from the immediate environment or as a result of dusty wind.
Bacteria are important in fish ponds; some are beneficial, others are not. Beneficial bacteria in fish ponds are responsible for maintaining crystal clear healthy water, breaking down ammonia from fish waste, reducing nitrite and nitrate, reducing nutrient load in ponds and balancing the ecosystem Xianzhen et al., (2004). Non beneficial bacteria cause diseases in the pond fishes Abowei and Briyai, (2011). They include Vibrio, Aeromonas, etc, and they cause such diseases as furunculousis, vibriosis, peduncle (fin rot), bacteria gill disease, etc.
The bacterial load and species in a fish pond may vary from time to time, depending on the influx of organic matter, rate of water change, etc. Also, the distribution of bacteria in pond water will vary with the water depth. At depths close to the water surface where there is abundant dissolved oxygen there will be presence of large quantity of aerobic bacteria and thus a large number of heterotrophic bacteria Xiuzhen et al., (2012) Bacteria species found in fish ponds are usually found in the pond fishes. They include Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio anguillarum, Bacillus sp., Listeria sp., and Staphylococcus sp. Apun et al., (2010). The presence of the members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Vibrio is a cause for concern as these organisms are potential pathogens. Thus handling of fishes in ponds where these potential pathogens are present can lead to the transmission of the pathogens to humans.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The importance of Museum fish pond cannot be over emphasized, as it help to preserve and breed, fishes for human consumption. However, certain challenges face the process of this fish pond operation.
The inflow and outflow of water will definitely have serious effect on the microbial distribution diversity and load. Again, the presence of members of one enterobacterial family like vibrio and Aeronomonas is a cause for concern as these organisms are potential pathogens and handily of the fishes can lead to the transoms of the pathogens to humans.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will educate and enlighten the students and the general public about the bacteriological survey of Museum fish pond in Akwa-Ibom State. This will also serve as a benchmark for other researchers to carryout a related research on this work.
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
In the case of a bacterial disease outbreak in a fish pond, knowledge of the bacteria species present in fish ponds and on pond fishes can give an insight of the likely cause of the disease. Thus, the aim of this research work is to identify the various bacterial species present in Oron Museum fish pond, in Akwa-Ibom State. The Objectives include:
Enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria in water sample obtained from Oron Museum fish ponds.
Enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria on pond fishes.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is restricted to bacteriological survey of museum fish pond in Akwa-Ibom.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bacteriological: This is study of bacteria especially in relation to medicine and agriculture.
Survey: This is a field of applied statistics; survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and the associated survey data collection, techniques, such as questionnaire construction and method for improving the number and accuracy of responses to survey.
Museum: This is a place or building where objects of historical, artistic, or scientific interest are exhibited, preserved or studies.