(A case study of Ecobank Plc Port Harcourt)
Complete Material Cost #3,000
This research study is titled, work place spirituality and organizational performance. It is aimed at determining the relationship between work place spirituality and productivity of Ecobank plc. The research was carried out using a sample size of 52 and a population size of 60. The findings on this study were tested using the chi-square test statistic, shows that the caltd is greater than tabltd value by 30.1577 > 1.0925 ) we reject Ho and accept H1,showing that There is a significant relationship between work place spirituality and organizational productivity of the banking sector. The study concludes that there is a strong relationship between work place spirituality and organizational performance. It is thus recommended that the organization should effectively employ strategies that can strengthen the pillars of organizational performance through spirituality concepts by the selected bank management amongst others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES ix
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 5
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. 7
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 8
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES. 8
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 8
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 9
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 9
CHAPTER TWO 11
LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 11
2.1.1 ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE 11
2.1.2 WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY 14
2.1.3 MEASURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE 17
2.1.4 Dimensions of Work place spirituality 20
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 24
CHAPTER THREE 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 26
3.1 Research Design. 26
3.2 Population Of The Study 26
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique. 27
3.4 Data Collection Technique. 28
3.5 Sources Of Data 28
3.6 Method of Data Analysis. 28
3.7 Reliability and Validity 29
CHAPTER FOUR 30
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS. 30
4.1 Data Presentation. 31
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA 32
4.2.1 Chi-square table 35
4.3 Testing of hypothesis 36
CHAPTER FIVE 38
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS. 38
5.1 DISCUSSIONS. 38
CHAPTER SIX 40
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 40
6.1 Summary 40
6.2 Conclusions. 41
6.3 Recommendations 41
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A number of scholars mention a paradigm shift in organizational sciences, management theory and practice in the past two decades (Capra, 1996; Giacalone and Dafna, 2000; Harman and Hormann, 1990; Ray and Rinzler, 1993; Wheatley, 1992). It seems this paradigm shift is complex and includes multiple dimensions such as moving from a predictable outlook to chaos (Gleick, 1987), from command and control or fear-based approaches to trust and empowerment (Conger and Kanungo, 1988), from simplicity to complexity (Lewin, 1992), from transactional leadership to transformational leadership (House and Shamir, 1993), and from closed systems to complex adaptive systems (Dooley, 1997). These changes in management include a shift from an economic focus to a balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality, and social responsibility concerns (Walsh, Weber, and Margolis, 2003; DeFoore and Renesch, 1995), a shift from self-centeredness to interconnectedness (Capra, 1993), a shift from self-interest to service and stewardship (Block, 1993; Neck and Milliman, 1994), and a change from materialistic to a spiritual orientation (Fox, 1994; Neal, 1997, DeFoore and Renesch, 1995).
In line with this paradigm shift, we have witnessed that organizations and managers have been discovering and experimenting with new ways and methods to help employees balance work and family, such as flexible work arrangements (Gottlieb, Kelloway, and Barham, 1998) and telecommuting (Kugelmass, 1995). In relation to these practices, organizations in North America have been increasing their focus on strategies of empowerment (Byman, 1991; Conger and Kanungo, 1988) to enable and increase employee involvement and participation (Hyman and Mason, 1995; Cotton, 1993). These innovations and new ways of working aim to be mind-enriching, heart-fulfilling, and spirit-growing for employees and still be financially rewarding at the same time. This new paradigm that is emerging in organizations has also been called as “the spirituality movement”. Ashmos and Duchon (2000) have described the spirituality movement as “a major transformation” where organizations make room for the spiritual dimension, which has to do with meaning, purpose, and a sense of community. This new spiritual dimension embodies employees’ search for simplicity, meaning, self-expression, and interconnectedness to something higher (Marques, Dhiman, and King, 2007). This study will contribute to the spirituality at work literature by inquiring its benefits for employees and its relationship with organizational performance. To start doing this, it would be useful to review the growing interest in spirituality at work literature and the definitions of spirituality.
Over the last decade, scholars report a steady increase of interest in spirituality at work issues among management researchers and practitioners in North America (Cavanagh, 1999; Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2003b; Ashmos and Duchon, 2000, Tischler, 1999). Howard (2002) argues the “explosion of interest in spirituality as a new dimension of management…probably the most significant trend in management since the 1950s.” . Wagner-Marsh and Conley (1999) suggested that there has been “an organizational fourth wave”, referring to an aftermath of Toffler’s (1980) technological third wave and they called this “the spiritually based firm”.
Although the literature and interest on spirituality at work is growing rapidly; there is confusion around how spirituality influences organizational performance. The objective of this paper is to review current literature on spirituality at work and organizational performance; in order to explore how spirituality is related to organizational performance.
The research work reviews the workplace spirituality literature to synthesize theoretical and empirical findings on how spirituality benefits employees and supports organizational performance. Three different perspectives are introduced on how spirituality supports organizational performance based on the extant literature: a) Spirituality enhances employee well-being and quality of life; b) Spirituality provides employees a sense of purpose and meaning at work; c) Spirituality provides employees a sense of interconnectedness and community. This research work introduces potential benefits and caveats of bringing spirituality into the workplace; providing recommendations and suggestions for practitioners to incorporate spirituality positively in organizations.
Organizational performance can be defined as a psychological state that characterizes an employee’s relationship with the organization and reduces the likelihood that he/she will leave it (Allen and Meyer, 2000). It is also seen as the ability of an organization to attain its goals and objectives by optimum utilization of resources. The topic has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholars and practitioners. As Allen and Meyer (2000, p. 286) pointed out, “of the ‘several work attitude’ variables studied by organizational psychologists, only job satisfaction has received more research attention than organizational performance”. This wide interest is possibly due to the impact of organizational performance on a wide range of attitudes and behaviors with organizational relevance, such as intention to leave, turnover, punctuality, organizational citizenship behaviors, attitudes toward organizational change and performance (Allen and Meyer, 1996, 2000; Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001). One of the most-cited models of organizational performance was developed by Allen and Meyer (Meyer and Allen, 1991; Allen and Meyer, 1996, 2000).
It differentiates three performance components: affective (emotional attachment to the organization), continuance (perceived costs associated with leaving the organization) and normative (feelings of obligation towards the organization). Each of these components contributes to strengthening the likelihood that the employee will remain in the organization, but the nature of each mind-set differs from the others. Employees with a strong affective bond remain because they want to do so. Those with strong continuance performance stay because they feel they have to. Normatively performance employees remain because they feel they ought to. These three forms are viewed as facets, rather than different types of organizational commitment. This means that a given employee can be affectively, normatively and instrumentally performance to the organization. However, the model specifies that the three components are different from each other. Therefore, it suggests that measures developed for each of the three are relatively uncorrelated with the other two. Another characteristic of the model is that each component develops independently, on the basis of different antecedents and via different processes (Allen and Meyer, 2000; Meyer and Allen, 1991, 1997). Affective commitment develops when the employee becomes involved in, recognizes the value-relevance of, and/or derives his/her identity from the association with the organization. For example, employees tend to be affectively committed if they feel that the organization treats them in a fair, respectful and supporting manner. Continuance performance develops when the employee recognizes that he/she stands to lose investments in the organization, and/or perceives that there are no alternatives other than remaining in the organization. Normative commitment develops when people internalize the organization’s norms through socialization, receive benefits that induce them to feel the need to reciprocate and/or to accept the terms of a psychological contract.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The conception of workplaces as human communities with social functions and societal benefits is taking ground and momentum in organizations (Walsh, Weber, and Margolis, 2003; Milliman et. al., 1999) There has been an invitation of researchers to consider organizations as communities that produce significant social values and outcomes for society (Walsh, Weber, and Margolis, 2003; Frost, Dutton, Mailis, Lilius, Kanov, and Worline, 2006). This therefore demands the need of the employees to improve on spirituality concepts in the organization.
This perspective stresses that organizations are not just machines for producing goods but also forms of human community that foster satisfying and meaningful life experiences for individuals, families, and society (Gull and Doh, 2004). This perspective has its roots in Human Relations movement and the humanistic discourses in organizational theory (e.g. McGregor, 1960; Mayo, 1946). In line with this community oriented perspective, Cash and Gray (2000) observe American corporations move toward a more value-expressive philosophy and tolerant culture responding to employees’ requests for spiritual connection and sense of community. This transition toward the need for spirituality and connection is also evident in changing managerial perceptions and values in today’s corporations. For example, according to a study conducted by Ashar and Lane-Maher (2004), mid- and senior level executives did not describe success in materialistic terms (such as money or promotion), but instead used terms such as being connected, balance, and wholeness to define success.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between work place spirituality and Organizational productivity. Other specific objectives of the study include;
To determine the relationship between work place spirituality and profit making in the banking sector
To determine the relationship between work place spirituality and productivity of Ecobank plc
To determine the relationship between work place spirituality and effective customer service .
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The study offers two major contributions. First, it explores the link between organizational culture traits and workplace spirituality dimensions. With the help of the findings of this study, various academic and organizational professionals may rethink the traits of organizational culture and their importance to organizational productivity.
Second and as pointed out, workplace spirituality is one of the new and hot buzzwords in the business arena. However, it is still at an embryonic stage and needs a lot of empirical and theoretical research to examine the extent of its impact on job performance, employee development and employee satisfaction. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, no published studies have discussed workplace spirituality in schools in Egypt. Accordingly, this research strongly opens new areas for research in this regard.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions are employed to guide the researcher.
(1) To what extent is work place spirituality related to profit making of the banking sector?
(2) To what extent is work place spirituality related to productivity of the banking sector?
(3) To what extent is work place spirituality related to effective customer service of the banking sector?
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES.
The following null hypotheses were stated to guide the process of the research study;
HO1: There is no significant relationship between work place spirituality and effective customer service
HO2 : There is no significant relationship between work place spirituality and productivity of the banking sector
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between work place spirituality and profit making in the banking sector.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The concept of these study spans within the knowledge of work place spirituality and Organizational productivity. More so, compliance to job rules also aid in decision making to also stimulate the development of this study for a strategic measure of Organizational productivity. This research study is carried out specifically among the staff of Ecobank plc management
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The conduct of this research study has been so far affected by various limitations which hampered the process of the research to a great extent. Although the research was prepared carefully, but the period of time is not sufficient for the researcher to observe large respondents from the different branches of Nigerian breweries in Aba Abia state. The research study is further been limited to studying only the manufacturing company management of Nigerian breweries. It would be best if it was done in a longer period of time on large geographical area and with fewer burdens of other subject’s projects and protocols (policies). Some other limitations to the research also includes:
1) Lack of cooperation by some respondents to the questionnaire.
2) Lack of knowledge of some respondents to the questionnaire.etc.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Work place: Is a search for meaning, deeper self-knowledge or transcendence to a higher level.”
Connectivity: Connection is defined as one’s experience of a deep sense of connection with other people and other people’s work.
Productivity: Is the level of ensuring that factors of production are pooled together to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
Profitability : This is referred to as the level of returns on investment, which are accrued on daily or monthly basis for effective performance of the organization.
Compassion : Compassion is defined as a deep awareness of and sympathy for others (Twigg and Parayitam 2006) and a wish to relieve their suffering (Farlex 2007).