THE POSSIBILITY OF USING BROKEN CERAMIC TILE AND BROKEN GLASS AS SUBSTITUTE AND PARTIAL REPLACEMENT
The possibility of using broken ceramic tile and broken glass as substitute and partial replacement for coarse aggregate in concrete serve as one promising solution to the escalating solid waste problem. Industrial wastes are the foundation of many concrete admixtures. The use of concrete for the disposal of solid waste has concentrated mostly on aggregates since they provide the only real potential for using large quantities of waste materials.
This study has been conducted through basic experimental research in order to analyse the effect of recycled glass bottles and ceramic tile as coarse aggregates in terms of its physical and mechanical properties. In view of this, one control mixing ratio of 1:2:4 batched by volume with water/cement ratio of 0.49 were used. The percentage replacement varied from 0%, 5%, 10%. The slump test was use to assess the workability of the fresh concrete and the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of cured concrete cube of size 150 x 150 x 150mm and 100 x 100 x100mm were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively of which total of 24 concrete cubes were cast and tested.
This project recommends that waste ceramic tiles and broken glass can be used as an alternate coarse aggregate in concrete.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT————————————————-
BACKGROUND OF STUDY—————————————–
SCOPE OF STUDY—————————————————–
PURPOSE OF STUDY/JUSTIFICATION—————————-
DEFINITION OF TERM———————————————–
LIMITATION OF STUDY———————————————-
Concrete is a construction material that consists, in its most common form, of Portland cement, aggregates and water. Concrete is used more than any other man made material on this planet. It is a low cost material and can be used for the construction of any type of structure. Aggregates which are one of the materials used in making concrete are chemically inert solid particles of selected sizes, held together by the hardened cement paste, which acts as the binder to aggregates. Aggregate that can be naturally gravel, crushed rock or an artificially prepare heavy or light weight material, are available in various shapes sizes and qualities that may range from fine sand to large, coarse rocky materials. Because cement remains the most expensive ingredient in making a concrete, it is desirable to minimize the quality of cement and maximize the quality of aggregate used in concrete production. In a normal concrete, 75 to 85% of the volume of concrete is aggregate that makes the cost of concrete relatively low. The choice of aggregate is determine by the propose use and importance of structure, environmental condition to which the structure will be exposed and the availability of aggregate within an economical distance. Aggregates in concrete serve three main functions: they provide a relatively cheap filler by rigid interlocking with cementations binders; they serve to provide a cohesive mass of solids that resist the action of applied loads, percolation of moisture, the action of weather; and abrasion and erosion and, they reduce the volume changes resulting from the setting and hardening process from moisture changes in the cementations’ paste thus reducing the cracking possibility of concrete. Owing to liberalization, and privatization, the construction of important infrastructure project like, buildings, roads, airports etc in Nigeria is increasing year after year. Such developmental activities consume large quantity of precious natural resources. This lead to faster depletion of natural resources on one side and manifold increase in the cost of construction of structures on the other side pose severe problem for the construction sector.
This problem is very severe in Nigeria. In view of this, people have started searching for the suitable other viable alternative materials which could be used either as a substitute or as a partial replacement to the conventional ingredients of concrete so that the existing natural resources could be save to the possible extent and could be made available for the future generation. Ceramic tiles are important construction materials used in almost all buildings. The production these of tiles normally starts from raw material, grinding and mixing, granulating by spray drying, pressing, firing and or polishing and glazing, waste mud, which is the sediment of washed down particles from these manufacturing processes is approximately 2 wt% of the final products. This mud which contains both course particles (feldspar, quartz, and ground fire tiles) and fine particles (clay, minerals such as kaolinite and mica) is far too impure to be re – used in tile production , so because of this; it is normally disposed of as waste in landfills. Elimination of this waste mud has become more and more problematic due to the huge amount of this waste produced each year and the increasing cost of disposal.
One way forward to solve this problem is by utilizing this waste for other purposes (D. wattanasiriwechetali 2009).
Ceramic wastes are produced as a result of the ceramic processing. These wastes when dispose cause soil, air and groundwater pollution.
The pollutant of ceramic industry which are mud and tile are coming from the ceramic plant’s refinery systems are stored in the waste disposal site of the plant.
Concrete, as a constructive material, has been used in construction industry for about two centuries. Approximately, the whole bulk of the concrete is used in one year is more than on ton apiece. Therefore, doing research about using modern technologies in production concrete is of great important. Furthermore, one of the most critical problems of the world has been related to remove the wastage and reusing of it in all countries large amount of wastage is produced annually. Most of these wastage are not reversible or if they are, their recycling leads to wasting energy and pollution which is turn increase the risk of these materials for the environment. Moreover, as to achieve the two purposes of removing the wastage material and also obtaining the positive qualities of concrete. Tile and constructive ceramics are among the most commonly used materials when it comes to structures.
The global production of ceramic tiles in the world is about 8, 500 million square meters, this amount is about 400 million square in Iran, which make Iran the fifth ceramic tile producer in the world.
This huge amount of productions has caused them to be among the most commonly – consumed materials in the world. Usually, the wastage relate to tile, ceramic and sanitary ware are created in different forms some of which are produced in companies during and after production process due to errors in either construction, human activities, and also inappropriate raw materials. Some others are produced in transportation and distribution procedures and finally, the most bulk of them are created as a result of destroying constructions. It is predicted that almost 3 to 7 percent of daily production of ceramic in Europe change into wastage and this amount reaches to millions ton per year.
The properties of these materials are in a way that they are unusable in other cycles of production. Therefore, they are useless in practiced and construction when of used and cause damages to environment. All in all, the hard physical structure of these materials and also their physical structure of these materials and also their chemical structure attract people and make them a good and suitable choice to be used in concrete and construction. Some of previously studies have investigated the use of ceramic wastage in concrete as sand or coarse aggregate (Lopez et al. 2007) observed that this substitution process would increase slightly the compressive strength. Besides, (Torgali et al, 2011) also concluded that using ceramic wastage as sand and coarse aggregate can slightly enhance compressive strength and also durability of concrete and also deal with the substation of ceramic tiles and glass as a coarse and finally reported a positive effect for the process.
In another study, the effect of ceramic electrical insulator as coarse aggregate in concrete was studied. In this study no negative effect was reported. Furthermore, the use of these materials in non – structural concretes was performed in a study in which the only problem reported was the high water absorption of the materials. Some researches were also done in which the use of the materials in concrete as a substitute or cement were investigated.
The ceramic waste form ceramic and construction industries are a major contribute to construction and demolition waste, representing a serious environmental, technical and economic problem of society nowadays. The major sources of ceramic waste are ceramic industry, building construction and building demolition. It has been estimated that about 30% of the daily production in the ceramic industry goes to waste. This is not recycled in any form at present. However the ceramic waste is durable, hard and highly resistant to biological, chemical industries to find a solution for its disposal (RM sentharamai, 2005). Homogeneous ceramic tiles waste can be used as a replacement to natural crushed stones, as their properties are similar as natural coarse aggregated (Mashita M.D, 2008). Recycled concrete obtained through partial substitution of natural coarse aggregates is suitable for structural purposes (Medina C., 2012).
The Indian ceramics industry, which is comprised of wall and floor tiles, sanitary ware, bricks and roof tiles, refractory materials and ceramic materials for domestic and others use is producing approximately 15 to 30 MT per annum waste. Out of total wastes, 30% goes as waste in India and dumped the powder in open space. Ceramic, waste is of generally two types, waste earthenware and also cracked during the manufacturing process. Ceramic waste is considered as non hazardous solid waste and possesses Pozzolanic properties. Therefore, after recycling can be reuse in different building construction application.
The use of waste as an alternative to aggregate in highway construction would produce two major benefits, firstly, the natural was aggregate quarry life can be extended. Seconly, the consumption of industrial space or productive land for dumping such waste may be reduced.
Researchers used ceramic waste to make green concrete by using minimum 20% replacement natural aggregate. It was found that ceramic waste base concrete shows good workability and achieve good characteristic strength.
- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
An environmentally friendly approach to the disposal of waste materials, a difficult issue to cope with in today’s world, would only be possible through a useful recycling process.
Floor tile waste aggregate (FTWA) in concrete applications can substantially reduce the negative environmental effects and exhaustion of the natural resources. In order to reuse and so to reduce the volume of the ceramic waste which occurs during the production of ceramic, it is possible to use as aggregates in the production of concrete. In this study, the mechanical and physical properties of concrete produce from floor waste aggregates where investigated.
Quality concrete was produced by using two different floor tile wastes. The properties of these concretes were compared to produce reference concrete. These results of the tests show that the concrete produced form floor tile waste has some more better physical and mechanical characteristics than conventional concrete, thus a new application area to selection recycling of ceramic floor tile waste and its use in the production of concrete.
- SCOPE OF STUDY
The extent of this project work is limited to the scope of a degree project (Higher National Diploma) study in Civil Engineering.
The information shall show both qualitative and quantitative analysis. However, the scope is restricted to the effect and properties of waste ceramic tiles produce with concrete.
- Collection of sample from ceramic industry, building construction or building demolition.
- Collection of sample from breweries industry, sit-out and bars
- Testing of the sample collected
- Comparison in the durability, compressive strength both physical and mechanical properties to that of an ordinary concrete and when produce with concrete.
- Recommendation for possible solution to improve the compressive strength of a concrete.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY/JUSTIFICATION
The purpose of this project is to assess the effect and property of waste ceramic tiles and waste broken glass, the physical and mechanical property and quality of the sample using the tile and glass waste in concrete. Using this waste in concrete with regard will reduce the cost of material and keeping the environment clean along with waste management and ameliorating the strength of structures and it effective measurement in sustainable development. Concrete as a major component of building materials especially in structural design has a high demand above the rate of production and as a result, give rise to exorbitant cost of purchasing. Therefore, it is imperative to look for a substitute like ceramic tiles and broken glass which can be crush to the size of coarse which it can be use in concrete design.
- DEFINITION OF TERM
Workability: It is the property of fresh concrete which is indicated by the amount of useful internal work required to fully compact the concrete without bleeding or segregation in the finished product.
Density: It is the weight (mass) per unit of volume used as a measure of the compacted use of a substance. It is commonly expressed as kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) or pound per cubic foot (Ib/ft3)
Water cement ratio: It is the ratio of the amount of water exclusive only of that absorbed by the aggregate, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar mixture. The ratio is preferably stated as a decimal by weight.
Slump Test: It is an empirical test carry out to determine the plasticity of a fresh concrete it measures the workability of a fresh concrete this test a mean of assessing the consistency of fresh concrete it is used indirectly to check the amount of water that have been added to a mix.
Compaction Test: It is the process of applying energy to loose soil to consolidate it and remove any voids, thereby increasing the density and consequently its load bearing capacity.
Compaction factor: It is the ratio of the weight of concrete that has been gravity filled in a cylinder to the weight of compacted concrete in a similar cylinder.
Ceramic: It is an organic non metal solid comprising metal, non metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Tiles: It is a manufacture piece of hard wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers or other objects such as table tops.
Cement: It is a binder agent, a substance that sets and harder and can bind other material together it is a powdery substance made by calcining lime and clay, mixed with water to form mortar or mixed with sand, gravel, and water to make concrete.
Compressive strength: It is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It can be measured by plotting applied force against deformation in a testing machine.
Aggregate: It is a whole form by combining several separate elements. It is a material or structure formed from a mass of fragments or particles loosely compacted together.
LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
The following difficulties were encountered during the execution of the project work.
- Financial constraints.
- Lack of textbooks and research materials on the subject matter in the polytechnic library.
- Lack of good equipment for the test in the school.