This research work is titled, Organizational Ethics and Corporate Performance. It is aimed at determining if there is a significant relationship between organizational ethics and corporate performance in selected telecommunication firms in Port Harcourt. This research was carried out using a sample size of 50 and a population size of 69 employees. The findings on this study were tested using the chi-square statistic. The results shows that the critical value by chi-square distribution is lesser than callted ( 47.523 > 1.098) therefore we reject Ho and accept HA, showing that Organizational Ethics do promote the growth of organizational standards and values in selected telecommunication firms in Port Harcourt, metropolis. The study concludes that It was said by some management guru that ethical companies have greater competitive advantage above their competitors, because they tend to do better in their respective market. It is thus recommended that; Designing a proper system to measure ethical climate according to ethical principles in the organization, to monitor the state of organization performance and it eliminate potential weaknesses in the form of a long-term strategic plan should also be encouraged.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ever since the concept Quality of Working Life (QWL) was first used over 30 years ago, ranges of definitions and theoretical constructions have been succeeded, mitigating the many problems facing this concept (Martel and Dupuis, 2006). QWL has several interpretations, passing through the focus of medical diagnoses to the requirement of building structural elements for the development of a productive activity. Although it is a concern of very remote humans and the idea was always geared to facilitate or bring satisfaction and well-being to the employees in the execution of their tasks. Work is a part of life that attracts the attention of many researchers. In one hand, regardless of incomes it provides some of the basic human necessities such as confidence, competence and value. In the other hand, it is a major source of stress together with other psychological and physiological diseases.
As a concept, QWL was first introduced at the create the conditions for a “humane working life” (Ryan, 1995). Since then, QWL has gained substantial interest and importance among management researchers and practitioners (Rathi, 2009). QWL is generally associated with a series of organizational objectives, conditions and practices which enables employees of an organization to perceive that they are virtually safe, satisfied and have better chances of growth and develop themselves as individual human beings.
In nowadays, QWL is globally drawing more attention. In our modern society people spend about more than one–third of their lives at their workplace. Hence, the eminence and importance of QWL is unparalleled and unquestionable (Ahmad, 2013). When organization offers quality of work life to their employees, it is a good indicator to boosts its image, consequently attracting and retaining employees. This is important as it indicates that firms are able to offer appropriate working environment to their employees (Noor & Abdullah, 2012).
The starting point in this study is the idea that it is possible to support productivity and the QWL simultaneously (Kasvio et al., 1994). Productivity improvements, in practice, can mean improvements in work productivity, product quality, customer service, throughput times, and so on. Improvements in QWL are typically related to better job satisfaction, well-being, social relations, and greater opportunities for learning and Organizational performance can be defined as the ability of an organization to attain its goals and objectives by optimum utilization of resources. There is a plethora of literature stating that organizations providing desirable QWL for its employees can achieve better human resource productivity and performance. A study conducted by May, Lau and Johnson (2009) indicated that the companies, which had high QWL gained better profitability and higher growth compared to other companies.
Better QWL is about being sensitive to the employees’ physiological and socio-emotional needs in a holistic manner, which stimulates job satisfaction and enhances organizational productivity and efficiency (Ruzevicius, 2007).
QWL also helps in developing jobs and working conditions that are excellent for employees as well as for the economic health of the organization. Employees who are satisfied with the working environment are both loyal to the organization and capable of providing better quality of care. The above discussion provides ample evidences to establish the relationship between QWL and OP, Smith & Salvaggio, 2003).. But when we put the spotlight on health care organizations, this relationship is of critical importance. Nayeri, & Noghabi (2011) investigated the relationship between the QWL and productivity among nurses and suggested managers to design appropriate strategies for promoting QWL to enhance productivity in manufacturing companies.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The need for working life and welfare has been a great concern to the management of manufacturing/production companies like Nigerian breweries plc Aba. In this dynamic business environment, job satisfaction and productive working conditions of the organization is related to smooth consensus between management of the manufacturing firm and job/ career satisfaction of her employees. It aids in creating values, customer satisfaction and customer retention, whereas the QWL is the foundation of well-being of employees and leads to better performance. Productivity of Nigerian breweries is therefore a front line of the company delivery system.
However, organizational efforts towards better QWL are less popular in the manufacturing sector of developing countries such as Nigeria and there is also lack of evidence for designing relevant intervention program for the employees welfare.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between Quality of working life and Organizational productivity. Other specific objectives of the study include;
To determine the relationship between Quality of working life and well being of employees
To determine the relationship between Quality of work life job career / satisfaction and profitability.
To determine the relationship between Quality of working life and Affective Job Satisfaction.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The research study is designed to benefit the organization with necessary assessment of Quality of Working Life and can potentially provide organizations with important information about the welfare of their employees, such as job satisfaction, general well-being, work-related stress and the home-work interface. Studies in the UK University sector have shown a valid measure of Quality of Working Life exists and can be used as a basis for effective interventions.
Worrall & Cooper (2006) reported that a low level of well-being at work is estimated to cost about 5-10% of Gross National Product per annum, yet Quality of Working Life as a theoretical construct remains relatively unexplored and unexplained within the organizational psychology research literature.
A large chunk of most peoples’ lives will be spent at work. Most people recognize the importance of sleeping well, and actively try to enjoy the leisure time that they can snatch. But all too often, people tend to see work as something they just have to put up with, or even something they don’t even expect to enjoy.
Some of the factors used to measure quality of working life pick up on things that don’t actually make people feel good, but which seem to make people feel bad about work if those things are absent.
For example, noise – if the place where someone works is too noisy, they might get frequent headaches, or find they cannot concentrate, and so feel dissatisfied. But when it is quiet enough they don’t feel pleased or happy – they just don’t feel bad. This can apply to a range of factors that affect someone’s working conditions particularly in manufacturing companies like Nigerian Breweries plc.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions are employed to guide the researcher.
(1) Is there relationship between Quality of working life and well being of employees?
(2) Is there relationship between Quality of work life job career / satisfaction and profitability?
(3) Is there relationship between Quality of working life and Affective Job Satisfaction?
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES.
The following hypotheses were stated to guide the process of the research study;
HO1: There is no significant relationship between Quality of working life and well being of employees.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between job career / satisfaction and profitability.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between Quality of working life and
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The concept of these study spines within the knowledge of Quality of work life and Organizational productivity. More so, compliance to job rules also aid in decision making to also stimulate the development of this study for a strategic measure of Organizational productivity.
This research study is carried out specifically among the staff of the manufacturing company management of Nigerian breweries in Aba Abia state to explicitly explore the relationship between Quality of working life and job satisfaction, as well as other variables affecting Organizational productivity in the manufacturing sector.
For an optimum result to be achieved from the findings, it would be necessary to utilize the chi-square test statistic to determine the relationship between the variables under study.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The conduct of this research study has been so far affected by various limitations which hampered the process of the research to a great extent. Although the research was prepared carefully, but the period of time is not sufficient for the researcher to observe large respondents from the different branches of Nigerian breweries in Aba Abia state.
The research study is further been limited to studying only the manufacturing company management of Nigerian breweries. It would be best if it was done in a longer period of time on large geographical area and with fewer burdens of other subject’s projects and protocols (policies). Some other limitations to the research also includes:
1) Lack of cooperation by some respondents to the questionnaire.
2) Lack of knowledge of some respondents to the questionnaire.et
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employees well-being : It is suggested that general well-being both influences, and is influenced by work.
Organizational productivity : This is the general social characteristics and business activities that are developed or practiced in corporate organizations to realize basic organizational objectives.
Policy: This the relative action and say of an individual or employee in the organization toward the functions and activities carried out in the organization, (research study, 2017).
Productivity: productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input.
Work life : Employee voice refers to the participation of employees in influencing organizational decision making.
Profitability : When the communication is clear, complete, concise, correct and fully understood by the recipient, it is known as ‘Effective – Communication’
Complete Material Cost #3,000