The study examines leadership styles and subordinate performance. The main objective of the study is to examine leadership styles and subordinate performance. The specific objectives are to examine the relationship between democratic leadership style and subordinate performance, to examine the relationship between autocratic leadership style and subordinate performance, to examine the relationship between participative leadership style and subordinate performance, to examine the relationship between laissez-faire leadership style and subordinate performance. The case study approach was adopted. The study was designed to focus on LNG Bonny, Rivers State, where primary data, via questionnaire were collected. The researcher adopted simple random sampling technique. The population of the study was made to be one hundred (100), the reason for this choice is that concrete and adequate information relating to the study under investigation resides among the people randomly selected. The Using Yaro Yemen’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 80. The study reveals that there is a relationship between democratic leadership and subordinate performance, that there is a relationship between autocratic leadership style and subordinate performance, that there is a relationship between participative leadership and subordinate performance, that there is a relationship between laissez-faire leadership style and subordinate performance. Based on the findings of the study, summary, conclusions and recommendations were made that LNG Bonny to provide professional performance guidelines that create a sense of responsibility to employees.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENT vii
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 4
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 6
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 6
CHAPTER 2 8
LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 8
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP 9
2.1.2 DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP 11
2.1.3 SUBORDINATE PERFORMANCE 15
2.1.4 MEASURES OF SUBORDINATE PERFORMANCE 16
2.2 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK 17
2.3 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP STYLES ON SUBORDINATE PERFORMANCE 21
CHAPTER 3 22
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 22
3.2 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 22
3.3 POPULATION 23
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE 23
3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 24
CHAPTER 4 26
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 26
4.1 DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION 26
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 27
5.1 SUMMARY 36
6.2 CONCLUSION 36
6.3 RECOMMENDATION 38
APPENDIX I 42
APPENDIX II 43
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the recent past years, leadership has engaged as a new effective approach for managing the employees and organization at large. The traditional concept of personnel administration has gradually replaced with the human resource management. This give importance to the strategic integration of new leadership styles into effective management of employees and to improve the employee performance. Kenneth and Heresy Hersey P, Blanchard KH (1988) assert that; “The effective leader must be a good diagnostician and adopt style to meet the demands of the situation in which they operates. Different leadership styles are used that fit to employees on the basis of amount of directions, empowerment, and decision making power. An administrative phenomenon reflects the contingency of leadership, and style, situation and performance criteria have been left to suffocate on their own. As a result, employee performance was affected due to lack of proper direction and application of strategic style in managing daily duties.
In past, the previous study investigated performance phenomena and how it was affected by various variables such as: Leadership, and with its different leadership styles such as participative, autocratic, and democratic. It was noted that, in most studies, the concept of participative approach was highly lacking yet in the data collected, it was noted that this approach was critical to the sustainability of leadership processes especially in large work environments. All in all, the history of leadership and how it affects performance of employees dates as back as early as the 17th century where towards the end of that century we started noticing a shift from treating humans as machines and rather see them as human capital necessary for the achievement of different work tasks (Carter M 2008).
In this study, there are different leadership styles such as autocratic, democratic, Participative and transactional which taken as independent variables and Subordinate performance would be taken as dependent variable. A conceptual model is developed on the basis of their relationship with a view to analyze which one leadership style is most appropriate to improve the performance of subordinates an organization. Consequently, performance was operationally perceived as: executing defined duties, meeting deadlines, team input, and achieving departmental goals. The above should lead to efficiency, specialization, effective feedback and good organizational relations.
Both terms (leadership and subordinate performance) cohesion should be proved through styles and approaches in attempt to cause efficiency which variable in this study was leadership and indeed Carter M. (2008) defined leadership as the ability to employ managerial competencies to organized performance processes by inspiring, igniting and motivating teams to meet set organizational goals.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
subordinate performance includes executing defined duties, meeting deadlines, employee competency, and effectiveness and efficiency in doing work. Various organizations need strong leadership styles that stimulate the subordinate performance. Some organizations such as LNG Bonny face the problems:
a) Poor innovation,
b) Low productivity,
c) Inability to meet performance targets.
d) Inability to achieve departmental goal
This problemshappens due to lack of strategic interventions of specific leadership styles to the particular situations was predicted as the problem at hand. This problem was continuously affecting subordinate performance. That’s why study investigates how leadership style stimulates performance of subordinates.
It is believed that an effective organization rooted from the propellers or on the business leaders. The idea of effective leadership is also adopted in the world of multinational firms. The subordinates also perceived that there is a need of a leader who should not only have to lead people but also be effective. So, they need an effective leader who can lead the people toward the changes and performance improvement.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to investigate leadership style and subordinate performance. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between democratic leadership styleand subordinate performance.
2. To examine the relationship between autocratic leadership style and subordinate performance.
3. To examine the relationship between participative leadership styleand subordinate performance.
4. To examine the relationship between laissez-faire leadership styleand subordinate performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between democratic leadership and subordinate performance.
2. What is the relationship between autocratic leadership style and subordinate performance.
3. What is the relationship between participative leadership and subordinate performance.
4. What is the relationship between laissez-faire leadership styleand subordinate performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
As such, the completion of this dissertation will provide understanding of the concept present so as to generate data and information that every planner could use in order to come up with strategies, plans and designs that will strategically position them in the highly competitive, diverse, and complex business environment that is experienced at present.
By fulfilling the aims that were stated in the objectives section, this study will be helpful for other researchers who may be focusing on understanding the concept of effective leadership. The notable significance of this study is the possibility that other researchers may be able to use the findings in this study for future studies that will create a huge impact on society. This study finding can be used for other findings that might prove to be helpful in introducing changes to the business.
The present study findings have been significant in number of ways. It has been contributed to the body of knowledge by; since the present area is highly under researched in Nigeria and developing countries. No study has been found to investigate leadership styles on subordinate performance in Nigeria. So, present study suppose that the findings of the present study has been helped the leaders in organization of Nigeria especially in LNG Bonny and those in developing countries in general to answer the long standing question of how to enhance subordinate performance.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covered an examination of strategic contributions of leadership style on subordinate performance of LNG Bonny, Rivers State as its geographical scope.
The study only focused on exploring how participative leadership, authoritative leadership, Democratic leadership and transactional leadership styles stimulated the subordinate’ performance which includes execution of defined duties, meeting of deadlines and achieving departmental goals.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In carrying out an investigation of this native the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, financial constraints. Usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore, finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, poor response from the respondent and inability to access the entire population of the study. In the next segment significance of the study will be discussed. Lastly, poor measurement instrument.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employees: A person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level.
Leadership: The action of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this.
Subordinate: A person under the authority or control of another within an organization.
Performance: The action or process of performing a task or function.
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