EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES
(A CASE STUDY OF OLD PORT-HARCOURT TOWNSHIP RIVERS STATE)
The study was determined to examine the effect of physical planning on residential property values. The specific objectives are to examine those responsible for planning the area, to examine the various control measures on physical planning, to examine the value of properties in the area and to determine the type and value of properties in the area. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 100. The researcher adopted simple random sampling technique. The major instrument used in the survey is the questionnaires. The method used to analyze the data was simple descriptive method stated in tables and expressed in percentage.
Findings amongst others reveal that there are those responsible for planning the area, that there various regulations/control on physical planning, there are different types of value of properties in the area and the effect of physical planning in the area. Based on the findings of the study summary, conclusion and recommendations were made that effort should be put, by government, at ensuring proper land use planning, the people should be made to comply with such regulations, necessary infrastructure should be provided to make conducive living, in the unplanned neighborhoods possible and thee Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuer’s should organize trainings and workshops that would enlighten the professionals in the built environment and the public on the importance of urban planning and adhering to the set down planning regulation by the authority and property developers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 RESEACH QUESTION 5
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.7 THE STUDY AREA 6
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 9
1.9 DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC TERMS 9
CHAPTER TWO 11
LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 INTRODUCTION 11
2.2 CONCEPT AND ORIGIN OF PHYSICAL PLANNING 11
2.2.1 CONCEPT OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY 12
2.2.2 CONCEPT OF VALUE 13
2.2.4 GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING ADMINISTRATION 17
2.2.5 PLANNING ADMINISTRATION AT FEDERAL LEVEL 20
2.2.6 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL, CONTRAVENTION AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 22
2.2.7 PROBLEMS OF PLANNING ADMINISTRATION 25
2.2.8 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL UNDER THE 1992 URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING LAW 32
CHAPTER THREE 35
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 INTRODUCTION 35
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 35
3.3 STUDY POPULATION 35
3.4 SAMPLE FRAME AND SAMPLE SIZE 36
3.5 METHOD OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 36
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 37
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 37
CHAPTER FOUR 38
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 38
4.1 DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION 38
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 39
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 44
CHAPTER FIVE 48
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48
5.1 SUMMARY 48
5.2 CONCLUSION 48
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 49
APPENDIX I 52
APPENDIX II 53
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Wikipedia (2011) and the Canadian Institute of Planners (2011), land use planning as the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition of land use, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic , social efficiency, health and wellbeing of urban and rural communities. Land use or physical planning has also been described as a process aimed at achieving orderly physical development with the overall aim of evolving a functional and live-able environment where individual and common goals can be achieved (Adeagbo 1998). The American Planning Association (2011) states that the goal of land-use planning is to further the welfare of people and their communities by creating convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive environments for present and future generations.
Nigeria with her numerous planning agencies both at federal and state levels has a number of planned land uses. Nevertheless there seemed to be a wide gap between the planned and unplanned or non-adherence to formal land use planning. What is on ground physically has not shown government enthusiasm about land use planning. Though land use planning is a service that provides a scheme to be used for physical development of a proposed neighbourhood, it does not necessarily result directly into a good(s), it is however, judged by its (product that is, the outcome of its implementation) (Jiriko 1998). The overall success of planning is measured by the attractiveness of the neighbourhood to land users which in turn impacts on the value of the properties there in. It is important to examine the effectiveness of land use planning in relation to property values to establish the effects that adherence to land use planning has on residential property values.
Administration of physical planning has been the responsibility of all the three tiers of government in Nigeria over the years. The extent of involvement of each level of government is dictated by the operations of the various towns and country planning legislation as well as the nation’s constitution. The fact is that the operations of the legislation differed among the regions and between the state and the federal governments. The 1992 Planning law further ensured that the administration of physical planning in the country is the responsibility of all the tiers of government. The law provides for the establishment of a National Urban and Regional Planning Commission, a State Urban and Regional Planning Board and a Local Planning Authority at the federal, state and local government levels respectively. These bodies and their levels are for the purpose of the initiation, preparation and implementation of the physical development plans and overall administration of physical planning.
In Rivers State, there are some established planning authorities which have their administrative structure.
The authorities have a politically appointed/elected local government chairman as their overall chairman; other executive administrative members include the town planner, a town engineer, a health officer, etc. In recent times, the composition of this structure has had much influence in the implantation of planning standards and controls in Old Port Harcourt metropolis. This is explainable where the views of the town planner in the authority are stampeded. Some authority executives have been accused of abetting impersonation incidences of who parade as workers of Town Planning Authority, visiting building sites of developers to extort money from unsuspecting developers; and usurpation of development control functions. Thus, the administrative structure of the development control machineries in Rivers State arguably has some influence on the implantation of development activities in the study area, and this forms the thrust of the study.
This study therefore seeks to examine the effect of physical planning on residential property values in some selected neighbourhoods within old Port Harcourt Local Government Council Area of Rivers State metropolis.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Old Port Harcourt Metropolis, Development Control functions have been unimaginably corrupted. People who should not have anything doing with Town Planning activities are from time to time found at developers’ sites behaving as if they are staff from Town Planning Authority office. This act has been arguably attributed to some weak administrative set up of the development control machineries.
In Old Port Harcourt, the problems of political thugs impersonating as town planning staff; constant delay in the processing of development permit; illegal attachment of structures to existing ones; and incidences of collapse building, have been linked to the administrative composition of the planning authorities. This situation creates the impression that the Town Planners in the area are not really in charge. Or, that the development control machinery is not effective enough. This linking has primarily been based on speculations and is devoid of any empirical backing.
The problem of this study hinges on the desire toempirically understand the influence of the existing administrative structure of the planning authorities and how this presently affects the development control activities in Old Port Harcourt Metropolis.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of physical planning on residential property value in Old Port Harcourt Metropolis. The specific objectives are as follows:
i. To examine those responsible for planning the area.
ii. To examine the various control measures on physical planning.
iii. To examine the value of properties in the area.
iv. To determine the type and value of properties in the area.
1.4 RESEACH QUESTION
The following research questions shall be used to guide the study:
i. Who are those responsible for planning the area?
ii. What are the various regulations/control on physical planning?
iii. What are the types and value of properties in the area.
iv. What are the effect of physical planning in the area.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this research will provide invaluable tools for tackling the present observable development control malaise not only of the studied planning authorities but also the entire urban authority and beyond. The findings will update the existing wealth of knowledge on development control problems as they pertain to the influence of politics on the effectiveness or otherwise of the machinery of control and will also pin down the major cause of the said perceived weakness.
In addition, the parent ministry in charge of physical planning matters in the state will be armed with the right information with which to take appropriate action to protect physical planning on residential property value against evil forces in the structure of the authority that inflict weakness on physical planning. It will also be of benefit to students in future research on the subject matter.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focused on the effect of physical planning on residential property values in old Port Harcourt town ship. It covers part of creek road to Aggrey Road including Forces Avenue, Port Harcourt.
1.7 THE STUDY AREA
The study was carried out in Rivers State, Port Harcourt in particular. Rivers State is one of the 36 state in Nigeria, it was created on may 27, 1967 and have a population of about three million people occupies an area 21,850sq with two third of it in the Niger delta geographical terrain, and it is made up of 23 local government areas. The research was carried out in old Port Harcourt Metropolis. Port Harcourt is the capital and largest city of Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River and is located in the Niger Delta. As of 2016, the Port Harcourt urban area has an estimated population of 1,865,000 inhabitants, up from 1,382,592 as of 2006.
The area that became Port Harcourt in 1912 was before that part of the farmlands of the Diobu village group of the Ikwerre, an Igbo sub-group (a controversial claim). The colonial administration of Nigeria created the port to export coal from the collieries of Enugu located 243 kilometres (151 mi) north of Port Harcourt, to which it was linked by a railway called the Eastern Line, also built by the British.
The main city of Port Harcourt is the Port Harcourt City in the Port Harcourt local government area, consisting of the former European quarters now called Old GRA and New Layout areas. The urban area (Port Harcourt metropolis), on the other hand, is made up of the local government area itself and parts of Obio-Akpor accordingly.Climate Port Harcourt features a tropical wet climate with lengthy and heavy rainy seasons and very short dry seasons. Only the months of December and January truly qualifies as dry season months in the city. The harmattan, which climatically influences many cities in West Africa, is less pronounced in Port Harcourt.
Port Harcourt’s heaviest precipitation occurs during September with an average of 367 mm of rain. December on average is the driest month of the year, with an average rainfall of 20 mm. Temperatures throughout the year in the city are relatively constant, showing little variation throughout the course of the year. Average temperatures are typically between 25 °C-28 °C in the city.
Some of Port Harcourt’s more popular and well-known residential areas are Port Harcourt Township (or just “Town”), GRA (Government Reserved Area) phases 1-5, Elekahia, Rumuomasi, D-line, Elelenwo, Ogbunabali, Rumuola, Diobu, Amadi Flats, Umuchitta, and Borokiri. The main industrial area is located inTrans Amadi.
Economy Port Harcourt is a major industrial centre as it has a large number of multinational firms as well as other industrial concerns, particularly business related to the petroleum industry. It is the chief oil-refining city in Nigeria and has two main oil refineries that process around 210,000 barrels of crude oil a day, both operated by the Port Harcourt Refining Company. Rivers State is one of the wealthiest states in Nigeria in terms of gross domestic product and foreign exchange revenue from the oil industry, crude oil being its principal export earner. Face-me-I-face-you architecture is quite common in certain parts of Port Harcourt. The Point Block of Rivers State Secretariat is an icon of the city. An 18-story building, it is the tallest building in the South East and South South geopolitical zones combined.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
i. One of the limitation of the study is that of access to the required information to assist in carrying out the study. In most cases, where sets of information available are disjointed and improperly kept. For this reason, the researcher has to spare the time to collate and classify the information into the required form.
ii. Another constraint is the uncooperative attitude of development controls officials and respondents who do not easily provide available information related to development control issues in the study area.
1.9 DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC TERMS
Physical Planning: In its broadest sense refers to a set of actions aimed at improving the Physical, Social and Economic welfare of a place and its dwellers.
Residents: Are person who maintains residency (domicile)in a given place.
Property Value: property value is the process of developing an opinion of value for real property (usually market value).
Town Planning: Town Planning involves both control of existing and new development, and “strategic planning” to ensure our resources are carefully managed to match our future needs and expectations.
Residential Property: A building that is used or suitable for use as a dwelling, or is in the process of being constructed or adapted for use as a dwelling.