The study examines the relationship between employee participation and organizational survival. The specific objectives of the study are to examine the relationship between team work and organizational survival, to examine the relationship between information sharing and organizational survival, to find out the extent to which employee decision making influence organizational survival and to examine the relationship between management by objective and organizational survival. The descriptive research method was employed since the study was to ascertain employee participation and organizational survival. The case study approach was adopted. The population of this study is designed to constitutes all management and junior staff of Dangote Group Limited and Pabod Breweries, Port Harcourt, Rivers State which was hundred (100). A self designed questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between Employee Participation and organizational survival. Based on the findings of the study, summary, conclusion and recommendations were made that Since employee team work and employee participation and employee decision making contributes to organizational survival, management should promote these to enhance greater performance in the workplace.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables x
CHAPTER 1 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope/Delimitations of the Study 5
1.8 Limitations of the Study 5
1.9 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER 2 8
LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Conceptual Framework 8
Figures 2.1: Conceptual Framework 8
2.1.1 Concept of Employee Participation 8
2.1.2 Dimensions of Employee Participation 9
2.1.3 Ways of Employee’s Participation 13
2.1.4 Basic Requirements for Employee’s Reticulation 13
2.1.5 Issues in Employee’s Participation 14
2.1.6 Concept of Organizational Survival 15
2.1.7 Measures of Organizational Survival 16
2.1.8 Impacts and Benefits of Participation and Participative Management 19
2.1.9 Effective Employee Participation and Organizational Survival 20
2.2 Theoretical Review of Study 21
2.3 Empirical Review of Study 22
CHAPTER 3 24
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24
3.1 Research Design 24
3.2 Population of the Study 24
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 25
3.4 Questionnaire Design 26
3.5 Sources and Method of Data Collection 26
3.6 Data Analytical Method 27
3.7 Reliability and Validity 28
CHAPTER 4 29
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 29
4.1 Data Presentation 29
4.2 Data Analysis 30
4.3 Testing Of Hypothesis 34
CHAPTER 5 37
DISCUSSION OF FINDING 37
5.1 Discussion of Findings 37
CHAPTER 6 39
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39
6.1 Summary 39
6.2 Conclusions 39
6.3 Recommendations 40
1.1 Background of the Study
Maintaining a place in this competitive era becomes not only the responsibility of the owners or leaders of the organization but that of the employees (Oke, and Olughor, 2014).Organizational survival has been the primary goal or objective of every organization (Adewale, Abolaji and Kolade, 2011). Survival is very crucial at this period of business turbulence. Organizations strive for survival and continuity, while seeking relevance and key positions in the industry.
Jones and Bartlet (2008), posit that survival and growth of organizations are contained in its goals which require energy and resources investment. From the observation, survival concept is an unwritten law of every organization and when organizations survived, without doubt, there will be available goods and services and the organization will be in continue operations, and Gross (1968), adds that survival should be an expedient factor for organizations interest.
Organizations encourage employee participation and creativity as means of survival.
Smith (1994), postulated that in the changing workplace and aggressive market organizations should encourage participation and creativity as means of continuity, many companies seem to make effort by offering reward for new or ingenious evidence to it workforce which overtime has lacked regulations attempt (Serkan, 2009). Therefore, Employee participation is the involvement of more employees to have access to certain arrangement and decision (Shelly 2000:7).
However, Pendleton (2001) made the suggestion that employee participation is an essential ingredient for corporate survival and this worth considering. Comparatively labourers work in union and amount of literature on participation of employees need augmented discussion in relation to the modern increased competitive business environment.
Employee Participation is generally defined as a process in which influence is shared among individuals who are otherwise hierarchically unequal (Wagner, 1994). Employers seek productive efficiency but many of them fail to recognize that the means to this is increasingly locked in the heads of the people they employ. Again, the rise of global institutions presents other problems for workers as corporate decisions become more distant from the staff that they concern: a decision made to close a plant in one country may have been made many thousand miles away with little opportunity for indigenous employees to contribute or even question decisions that dramatically affect their lives (Doyle & Nathan, 2001; Felstead et al., 2003).
Organizational survival has been the most interesting topics for organizations over the years. Organizations exist to survive in the midst of environmental factors that tend to encroach on business performance. Organizations attempt to maintain the existing state of affairs, but essentially the larger part of their efforts is tilted toward survival (Mindy, 1998). The competition in the industry is getting stronger and firms are adopting different strategies to be competitive in the industry. Surviving in the global struggle to meet with increasing demand on firms in the market place has seen many researchers and academicians having a resort to pay attention to the individual employees in the organization since innovation in product and services are brought about by these individuals.
However, in the review of past studies, despite the level of work that has been done, only few studies try to discuss some specific aspects of employee participation that can affect survival of organizations. This has necessitated more work to be done on the extent to which employee participation affects organizational survival especially in selected manufacturing firms in Port Harcourt. Given this knowledge breach, our point of departure from previous studies is to empirically establish the relationship between employee participation and organizational survival.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Employees are the engine room of the manufacturing industry which makes it necessary for them to take part in the decision making process, as they interact most with the customers and know what they want and would prefer. This rest on the belief that employees are the most indispensable resources in the manufacturing industry and organizational goals of increased performance and harmonious employees commitment to work is best attained when they are integrated in the decision making process of the organisation.
The problems identified that prompted this study are:
i. Lack of Team work as employees are not allowed to work as a team.
ii. Lack of information sharing among employee and top management.
iii. Employees are not allowed to make decisions at board level.
iv. Objectives are not specifically defined by management within organization.
It is based on these identified problems that this study is set to proffer a structured and accurate investigation on employee participation and organizational survival in the manufacturing industry in Rivers state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between employee participation and organizational survival. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between team work and organizational survival in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
2. To examine the relationship between information sharing and organizational survival in Rivers State.
3. To examine the relationship between decision making and organizational survival in Rivers State.
4. To examine the relationship between management by objective and organizational survival in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be used to guide the study.
1. Does team work relate with organizational survival in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State?
2. Does information sharing relate with organizational survival in Rivers State?
3. Does decision making relate with organizational survival in Rivers State?
4. Does management by objective relate with organizational survival in Rivers State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HO: There is no significant relationship between employee participation and organizational survival.
HI: There is a significant relationship between employee participation and organizational survival.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in the following ways;
Firstly, it will assist the organization to continually allow employee to participate in the decision makings and also make allow employee to share useful information for the good of the organization.
Others who will benefit from this study include managers, business organizations, higher institutions and the society in general.
1.7 Scope/Delimitations of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited into the followings:
1. Content Scope: The specific areas of organizational survival the study investigated include; innovation, adaptability, service quality and customer satisfaction and profitability. Whereas, the areas of employee participation includes team work, information sharing, decision making and management by objectives.
2. Geographical scope: This study covers an examination of strategic contributions of employee participation on the survival of selected manufacturing firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
3. Unit of Analysis: This is a macro study because it is interested in ascertaining the survival of an organization in this direction.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The major limitation of the study is the short time frame the research lasted, coupled with the tight academic time table, which prevented a very comprehensive study. The fund available to the researcher was also limited and therefore the study was limited to a small portion of the survey population.
Another limitation is the difficulties, encountered by the researcher in obtaining all needed information and materials from the right source and computation of data for the project.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge.
The action or process of making important decisions.
A person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level.
In the current information driven and technologically based global economy, organizations are becoming increasingly dependent on the cumulative knowledge of their employees, suppliers, customers, and other key stakeholders.
It referred to one-to-one exchanges of data between a sender and receiver.
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time.
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE
It is a management model that aims to improve performance of an organization by clearly defining objectives that are agreed to by both management and employees.
The action of taking part in something.
It is the act of surviving; to stay living.
n almost every company or organization, teamwork plays a vital role in getting things accomplished. It is an effective way to reduce the organizational hierarchy and increase the employee involvement. According to Quick & Nelson, teamwork involves people with complementary skills who share common mission and goals.
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